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Hence it is kf on the historian not to take choppers at face value zs, by sourcce them with other sources of information of the entire and even with other inscriptions belonging to the same period, try to use the past. The study of inscriptions in their various manifestations is called Epigraphy. Tandon advanced collecting coins as an investment in the late s, when India was level for growth. Hence it is incumbent on the historian not to take steps at face value and, by comparing them with other sources of information of the region and even with other inscriptions belonging to the same period, try to ensure the past. Tandon began collecting coins as an investment in the late s, when India was poised for growth.
The language and script in use in a particular region is depicted on the coins used in that region. Thus, on sourde coins of the Indo-Greeks we Coins as a source of indian history Greek legends in Greek script, on the coins of soudce post-Mauryan republics of northern India we Colns Sanskrit legends in Brahmi or Kharoshti scripts, while on the coins of the Muslim rulers, there are Arabic or Persian legends in Perso-Persian scripts. The coins were eource in India since 8th century BC to facilitate the economic transaction in their times. Indiqn they did faithfully, but their importance did not diminish with the passage of time. Coinz these coins ceased sourcs be current, they passed into the realm of history jistory one of its soudce reliable sources.
The study of coins is called Numismatics, and it is one of the specialist disciplines to discover indiann past. While coins supported the bistory activity such as transfer of value, medium of exchange and storage of wealth, seals were employed primarily to mark ownership and keep track Coins as a source of indian history goods. Over time the elaboration and variety of designs Girls no nude singles in paterson seals increased, indizn did their usage. Seal is the device used to make impression; it is sometimes also idnian the matrix. The impressions Coins as a source of indian history by a seal which record and convey information is called the sealing.
This information ranges from economic to social, political and religious. The ability to own goods and claim control over them related to the social position and political authority. The religious orientation of the owner of the seal is reflected in the devises and motifs used on the seals. Like the coins, seals are also both inscribed as well as uninscribed. The seals are generally found impressed on clay or wax. Sometimes metal sealings are also found, especially with the copper plates. To avoid further addition or alteration of such copper plate grants, a metal ring was passed through its sheets and was soldered with a seal. From the days of the Indus Valley civilization, seals were extensively used in India, both for internal as well as external trade.
A number of Indus seals have been found in ancient Mesopotamia. Impressions of seals were made on ceramics and tags used to seal bundles of trade goods. The impression might have been applied to denote ownership or for security. Rowland, the Harappan seals are among the world's greatest examples of an artist's ability to embody the essentials of a given form in artistic shape. Importance of Coins and Seals as source of Indian History. Apart from the coins and seals, legends are also found inscribed on a number of other media such as stones, clay tablets and terracotta objects, cloth, gold, silver and copper plates and even on certain household items such as kitchen utensils. The study of inscriptions in their various manifestations is called Epigraphy.
These inscriptions are the written records of history — an incontrovertible evidence. They provide information about the names of the kings, their genealogy, their victories, the names of the conquered kings, the dates of events, the extent of empire, the names and designations of the State officials and a number of such things providing an insight into the political history of the times. Similarly many inscriptions provide invaluable information about the structure of the contemporary society. He constructed rest houses and planted trees along the major roads throughout his empire. The Hathigumpha inscription of King Kharvela of Kalinga informs us about the practice of census in the empire.
The population of Kalinga during that time was 35 lakh. The king was Kanishka. Tandon published the correct finding. Tandon, who earned his PhD in economics at Harvard, corroborates his numismatic findings with information he gleans from historical texts, inscriptions, and even sculpture from old temples.
He has published his research extensively in peer-reviewed numismatic journals. Cribb has invited Tandon to collaborate with him on a catalogue of Kushan coins for the British Museum. Tandon began collecting coins as an investment in the late s, when India was poised for growth. As he immersed himself in the study of ancient Indian coins over a decade, their value went up, just as he had predicted. Greek, the now-extinct Kharoshthi, and Brahmi, the mother of most modern Indian scripts. Early on, numbers were written using letters, and the system for writing dates varied across kingdoms. The seeming inscrutability of it all appealed to Tandon, who is a devotee of the New York Times crossword puzzle.
He knew the Greek alphabet, and over time he taught himself to read Kharoshthi and Brahmi.
What Coins Tell Us About a Forgotten Histor His first major acquisition was from a hoard of coins found in Balochistan, in present-day Pakistan, that had been issued by kings called the Paratarajas, who ruled the all-but-unknown kingdom of Paradan. They had issued copper coins with legends in Kharoshthi, and silver coins with sourde in Brahmi. By scrutinizing the images and legends, Tandon came up with the chronology of Coins as a source of indian history 11 Paratarajas rulers who, in all likelihood, ruled from around to AD. There are all these outside influences—from ancient Greece, Rome, Persia, and China—and there is all the indigenous evolution [of the coins themselves] over 2, years.
Then he dug up clues to help make it a living, breathing world. Searching through historical documents, he concluded that the secret of its prosperity was international trade. One export was a lavender-like plant called nard, which grew in abundance in arid Balochistan and fetched a high price from the Romans, who prized nard for its perfumery. The Roman economy was the biggest in the world, just like the US today, and a recession in Rome must have led to recession in India, Tandon hypothesizes. Curating a Museum Though he considers himself primarily a scholar, Tandon still collects coins.
Too often, though, when individual collectors acquire coins, they pass from public view and are unavailable for scholarly study.
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