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Coins as a source of indian history

These templates were stamped with certain symbols, probably to vouch for their weight and equipment. One of the advantages of inscriptions for historians is osurce unlike like sources they cannot be tampered with and hence give a fair know of the person who got the inscription engraved as well as of his times. Big over the coin to inspect closer Flip coin Kanishka the Great Gold, c. What Uses Tell Us About a Forgotten Dynasty His first major acquisition was from a trauma of coins found in Balochistan, in present-day Pakistan, that had been issued by kings called the Paratarajas, who sent the all-but-unknown kingdom of Paradan.

In the primitive society, this exchange was done through barter — commodity for commodity or commodity for service. However, as the social structure grew complex and the needs of the people multiplied, a metallic medium, commonly accepted by all, came into use.

Coins as a Source of Ancient Indian History

These metallic media varied in a societies: Later metallic pieces of definite weight and purity came into use in India. These pieces were stamped with certain symbols, probably to vouch for their weight and fineness. Thus, Punch Marked Coins, the earliest coinage of the world was born in India. The coins were primarily minted in gold, silver and copper, Coins as a source of indian history sometimes alloys of different off were also used. The manufacturing techniques also differed from punch marking to casting and die-striking. All these features reflect Gratis sexsider middelfart advancement in metallurgy during those times.

On Coins as a source of indian history basis of their contents soirce coins are of two kinds: The coins bearing inscriptions or the legends generally display the name and title of the issuer, Coins as a source of indian history histoty, particularly during the medieval times, also the date and place of their issue. Coinx features help a historian in ascertaining the development, use and extent of a particular script, the name of the issuer, his reign, the extent of his empire and a number of such things. The coins also display the artistic attainments of the times as also soucre social customs and religion sourde by the issuer.

Thus on the coins of the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Kushanas and the Guptas, the effigy of the king is invariably depicted, usually in association with various gods and goddesses. The legends inscribed on the coins are also varied in nature. The language and script in use in a particular region is depicted on the coins used in that region. Thus, on the coins of the Indo-Greeks we find Greek legends in Greek script, on the coins of the post-Mauryan republics of northern India we find Sanskrit legends in Brahmi or Kharoshti scripts, while on the coins of the Muslim rulers, there are Arabic or Persian legends in Perso-Persian scripts.

The coins were issued in India since 8th century BC to facilitate the economic transaction in their times. This they did faithfully, but their importance did not diminish with the passage of time. Once these coins ceased to be current, they passed into the realm of history as one of its most reliable sources. The study of coins is called Numismatics, and it is one of the specialist disciplines to discover the past. While coins supported the economic activity such as transfer of value, medium of exchange and storage of wealth, seals were employed primarily to mark ownership and keep track of goods.

Over time the elaboration and variety of designs of seals increased, as did their usage. Seal is the device used to make impression; it is sometimes also called the matrix. The impressions left by a seal which record and convey information is called the sealing. This information ranges from economic to social, political and religious. The ability to own goods and claim control over them related to the social position and political authority. The religious orientation of the owner of the seal is reflected in the devises and motifs used on the seals.

Like the coins, seals are also both inscribed as well as uninscribed. The seals are generally found impressed on clay or wax. Sometimes metal sealings are also found, especially with the copper plates. InTandon began painstakingly tracking down pieces of the puzzle—an image with a missing letter here, another clue there. Inon a visit to a closely guarded collection of ancient coins at a museum in northern India, he took a hasty photograph of what he realized only later was the mystery coin. It had the missing letters Tandon needed to identify the king as Toramana, a Hun. Hover over the coin to inspect closer Flip coin Kanishka the Great Gold, c.

Art and culture flourished under the Kushans and they were known for their beautiful gold coins. This early coin from Kanishka 1, the greatest Kushan of all, depicts the Greek lunar goddess Selene. Later, the king began putting local deities on his coins.

Tandon knows the Greek alphabet from his training in mathematics and can read Coins as a source of indian history script on Kushan coins. The king was Kanishka. Tandon published the correct finding. Tandon, who earned his PhD in economics at Harvard, corroborates his numismatic findings with information he Coims from historical texts, inscriptions, and even sculpture from old temples. He has published his research extensively in peer-reviewed numismatic journals. Cribb has insian Tandon to collaborate with him on a catalogue of Kushan coins for the British Museum.

Tandon began collecting coins as an investment in the late s, when India was poised for growth. As he immersed himself in the study of ancient Indian coins over a decade, their value went up, just as he had predicted. Greek, the now-extinct Kharoshthi, and Brahmi, the mother of most modern Indian scripts. Early on, numbers were written using letters, and the system for writing dates varied across kingdoms. The seeming inscrutability of it all appealed to Tandon, who is a devotee of the New York Times crossword puzzle. He knew the Greek alphabet, and over time he taught himself to read Kharoshthi and Brahmi. What Coins Tell Us About a Forgotten Dynasty His first major acquisition was from a hoard of coins found in Balochistan, in present-day Pakistan, that had been issued by kings called the Paratarajas, who ruled the all-but-unknown kingdom of Paradan.

They had issued copper coins with legends in Kharoshthi, and silver coins with legends in Brahmi.

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